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Barber's Pole


During the treatment, barber-surgeons would give patients poles to hold, the original barber poles. Grasping the staff made their veins pop out a bit, making them easier to find while the barbers went all Sweeney Todd.(new Image()).src = ' =38cf8a01-c7b4-4a61-a61b-8c0be6528f20&cid=877050e7-52c9-4c33-a20b-d8301a08f96d'; cnxps.cmd.push(function () cnxps( playerId: "38cf8a01-c7b4-4a61-a61b-8c0be6528f20" ).render("6ea159e3e44940909b49c98e320201e2"); );




barber's pole


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Have you ever wondered where the history of the barber pole came from? Let Uppercut Deluxe take you on a journey back to when it all began, when being a barber wasn't quite as straight forward as it is today. A universally recognised symbol of barbering, the origins of the barber pole can be traced back to the Middle Ages.


The bloody bandages associated with bloodletting inspired the red and white stripes, while the barber pole itself symbolises an instrument people gripped onto during the procedure to encourage blood flow.


Barber poles are one of those icons that everyone recognizes. The red, white (and in the U.S., blue) stripes rotating around a pole outside a shop lets everyone know that this is a good place to get a haircut.


While most everyone recognizes this symbol immediately, you might not know what it actually means. As it turns out, the meaning behind the barber pole and its colors have a rather gruesome history that may just surprise you.


Pretty chilling! However, a 1307 law banned this practice, which meant that barbers needed to find another way. The red-and-white striped pole rapidly became the symbol of barber-surgeons afterward. Some barber poles also have basins on the top, and these are meant to represent the dish that the bloodletting leeches were kept in. Yikes!


In Europe, barber poles are red and white, so the blue stripe is a United States addition. Some historians say that the blue stripe represents the color of veins, but the more likely story is that red, white, and blue became the standard as a show of patriotism.


As it is well known, barber pole larvae show increased resistance to commercial anthelmintics drenched to small ruminant livestock, and producers are looking for other alternatives. What about bypassing the livestock entirely and applying a larvicidal product directly on the pasture itself?


Laboratory studies we conducted at North Carolina State University showed that 96.6% L3 barber pole larvae were not moving or dead when immersed in solutions of liquid nitrogen fertilizer (containing 32.7% urea and 42.2% ammonium nitrate (21.1% ammonium and 21.1% nitrate), corresponding to field applications of 30 lb of nitrogen per acre. Another laboratory study showed that a 10% solution of household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) resulted in 99.1% of L3 larvae not moving or dead. Higher solutions of household bleach caused lysis (disintegration) of the larvae.


Gastrointestinal parasites continue to be a major challenge for small ruminant producers in the Southeastern United States. Sheep and goats are more susceptible to internal parasites when compared to other livestock. Haemonchus contortus, commonly known as barber pole worms, cause most of the serious illness in sheep and goats. Barber pole worms live in the abomasum (fourth stomach compartment) of small ruminants and nourishes by sucking blood from the host. Infestations can cause remarkable reductions in reproductive performance and higher incidences of illness and death.


Typically, Alabama weather in the spring and early fall are ideal climates for barber pole worms to reproduce. Males and females mate to produce eggs. The female worms have a red and white striped appearance, thus the name barber pole. Eggs are expelled in feces when animals defecate. Once eggs are deposited in a wet and warm environment, they hatch and develop into infective larvae. These larvae are capable of moving from feces on the ground up to 3 inches on grass blades or the stalks and leaves of other plants. When a sheep or goat ingests infective larvae while grazing, the infective larvae will continue to grow into adults inside the stomach of an animal while the reproduction cycle continues. If the environment is too hot and dry (approximately 100F), eggs deposited in pasture will die within days or weeks. However, under cold conditions, especially in winter, eggs can stay dormant up to 180 days and still be infectious.


Sheep and goats are more vulnerable during the lambing and kidding season, especially in the spring. Lactating and young animals are also more susceptible because of their weak immune system. Common symptoms of barber pole worm infestation include the following:


Several environmental and management conditions have influenced the prominence of barber pole worms. Environmental factors include high temperatures, humidity, and rainfall. Management conditions include resistance to anthelmintic drugs because of excessive use, poor forage management, an inadequate nutritional plan, and limited availability of anthelmintic drugs that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for small ruminant use.


Forage management. Ninety percent of barber pole worms live in the first ten inches of ground soil. Maintaining a grazing height above five inches will prevent animals from being exposed to many harmful parasites.


Barber pole worms continue to be a major threat to the small ruminant industry. During lambing and kidding season, especially in spring and early fall, more precaution should be taken to control barber pole worms. An integrated parasite management approach is the best option to control barber pole worms. Producers are advised to consult a veterinarian before using anthelmintic drugs or before developing a parasite control program for their herd. For more details about parasite control in sheep and goats, visit the Sheep and Goats section of the Alabama Extension website, www.aces.edu.


Barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus, sometimes called wireworm) is a gastrointestinal roundworm of ruminants and camelids that can cause serious disease, especially in sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. Adult cowsWhile "cows" can be defined to refer exclusively to female cattle, at The Open Sanctuary Project we refer to domesticated cattle of all ages and sexes as "cows." are less commonly affected by this parasite, but calves can be susceptible. While other gastrointestinal parasites can cause illness in small ruminants and camelids, barber pole worm is especially dangerous because it is a blood-sucking parasite that has the potential to cause life-threatening anemiaAnemia is a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.. These worms have a short life cycle and one female can produce between 5,000 and 10,000 eggs per day. Individuals can have thousands of adult worms within their stomach. Combined with the fact that each worm can consume 0.05ml of blood per day, it is obvious that severe barber pole worm infestation could have dire consequences.


Barber pole worm is a strongylid parasite, and its life cycle is similar to that of other strongylids. Adult worms feed and reproduce inside the abomasum of ruminants and the third stomach compartment (C3) of camelids. Eggs released by the adult female worms are passed in the feces of the infected individual. Development of the parasite outside of the host is dependent on environmental conditions, such as the temperature and presence of moisture (described more below). When the conditions are conducive, eggs hatch inside the feces and develop into first stage larvae (L1) and then second stage larvae (L2) while remaining within the feces, which offers environmental protection to the parasite. The parasite is not able to leave the protection of the fecal pellet until it becomes a third stage larva (L3) or infective larva. The L3 moves from the feces onto grass or other pasture vegetation, where it moves up the plant in droplets of water, such as dew or rain. Sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas then consume infective, third stage larvae while grazing. Once inside the host, infective larvae develop into fourth stage larvae (L4). The L4, which is able to suck blood, then moves into the abomasum or C3 (depending on the species of the host), where it develops into an adult, and the process begins again. The lifespan of an adult worm is typically a few months.


Within every herd or flock that is exposed to barber pole worm there will be some individuals who carry heavier parasite loads than others. Additionally, not every individual who has this parasitic infection will show clinical signs of disease (the term haemonchosis describes clinical illness caused by barber pole worm infections), and different individuals will be able to tolerate different parasite loads.


Overall, sheep tend to develop a stronger immune response to barber pole worms than goats, possibly because sheep are natural grazers, whereas goats are browsers by nature and thus their food supply is elevated away from the parasites. If allowed to browse, goats would be exposed to far fewer of these parasites than sheep, so they may not have developed the same type of immune response as sheep, leaving them more vulnerable in settings where they have to graze on pasture for the bulk of their food. Some breeds of sheep (such as Katahdins and Black Bellied Barbados) and, to a lesser extent, goats (possibly Kikos), are believed to be more resistant to barber pole worm than others.


There is less research available regarding resistance in camelids, but studies suggest that alpacas may be more resistant to barber pole worm than sheep. A retrospective review of llamas and alpacas admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between 2002 and 2013 found that llamas had higher rates of barber pole worm infection than alpacas, but more research is needed to determine if this is due to differences in immunity between the two species or the result of other factors. 041b061a72


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